Tag Archives: science

Revised History Lesson- An Armenian Nefertiti

Nefertiti in Egyptian means “The Beautiful Has Come”. This indicates Nefertiti was not native to Egypt and also it shows Egyptians considered her to be very beautiful. Scholars agree that she was indeed a queen brought from the Mittani Kingdom. Her original name was “tadukhepa” or “Takuhi” in the language spoken today, daughter of Tushratta king of Mitanni.

It’s important to point out here that the father of Egyptology, Flinders Petrie, pointed out in the 19th century that Mitanni (along with Hayasa) is one of the Armenian Indo-European kingdoms that existed in the 2nd millennium BC. Modern science only comes to prove the claim that not only are Armenians native to their Homeland (genetics, archaeology, anthropology, linguistics only come to prove this), but Armenia could also be considered the cradle of civilization where the first settled communities began. The works of Dolgopolsky, Greenberg, Diamond, Atkinson, Gray, Renfrew, Ruhlen, Cavalli-Sforza, Ivanov, Gamkrelidze and many others are superb, by far these are the most outstanding scholars in the field, many of whom have received Pulitzer and Nobel prizes for their decades of dedication to the subject.

 

For more readings on the Mittani Kingdom: http://angelateryan.wordpress.com/2011/05/10/mitani-hurri-mitani-ancient-armenian-state/

Armenian Numerals

The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system created using the majuscules (uppercase letters) of the Armenian alphabet. However, it was not limited to the use of only capitals. The system was invented in the 4th century, long before the Hindu system swept across the area, in response to the inefficiency of the Persian and Greek (Herodianic) systems before it.

There was no notation for zero in the old system, and the numeric values for individual letters were added together. The principles behind this system are the same as for the Ancient Greek numerals and Hebrew numerals. In modern Armenia, the familiar Arabic numerals are used. Armenian numerals are used more or less like the Roman numerals in modern English, e.g. Գարեգին Բ. means Garegin II and Գ. Գլուխ means Chapter III (as a headline).

The system used the first 9 letters as units, the 2nd 9 letters as tens, the 3rd 9 letters as hundreds and the 4th 9 letters as thousands.

 

Found in Allan A. Shaw’s “An Overlooked Numeral System of Antiquity”

The final two letters of the Armenian alphabet, “o” (Օ) and “fe” (Ֆ) were added to the Armenian alphabet only after Arabic numerals were already in use, to facilitate transliteration of other languages. Thus, they do not have a numerical value assigned to them.

Numbers in the Armenian numeral system are obtained by simple addition. Armenian numerals are written left-to-right (as in the Armenian language). Although the order of the numerals is irrelevant since only addition is performed, the convention is to write them in decreasing order of value.

Examples of this algorithm:

  • ՌՋՀԵ = 1975 = 1000 + 900 + 70 + 5
  • ՍՄԻԲ = 2222 = 2000 + 200 + 20 + 2
  • ՍԴ = 2004 = 2000 + 4
  • ՃԻ = 120 = 100 + 20
  • Ծ = 50

For numbers greater than 9000, a line is drawn over a corresponding letter, multiplying it by 10,000; i.e., 10,000 would be Ա with a line over it, 20,000 would be Բ with a line over it, etc.

Romans repeated symbols for the purpose of addition only and this was done quite generally, for XX means 10+10, MM means 1000+1000, etc. However, the Armenian version repeated the letters very rarely and when it did, it was for the purpose of multiplication only, for ՌՌ means 1000 x 1000, ՄՌՌ =200 x 1000 x 1000, etc. While ՏՇՀԳ =4000+500+70+3=4573.

Tomorrow I’ll cover a variant to this system, introduced to us through Ananya Shiragatsi.
source in part: National Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 8 (May, 1939), pp. 368-372

The Armenian Origin of Basques

Stephen Oppenheimer, a medical geneticist at the University of Oxford, published a new book «The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story» (http://www.amazon.com/Origins-British-Genetic-Detective-Story/sim/0786718900/1?ie=UTF8&pf=book). He claims that the historians are wrong in almost every aspect. In Dr. Oppenheimer’s restoration of events based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA analysis, three-quarters of the ancestors of the modern British arrived on what became the British Isles between 15,000 and 7,500 years ago, at the end of the last ice age, when Britain was still attached to the mainland of Europe. They shared a genetic heritage with the Basques and spoke a language related to Basque language. The British Isles were not populated then, the new arrivals in the British Isles found an empty territory. Thus both Britain and Ireland have been inhabited for thousands of years by a single people that have remained in the majority, with only minor additions from later invaders like Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. But these incursions had little effect on the basic Basque genetic heritage. That heritage is strongest in Ireland, where only 12 percent of the population descends from migrants who came after the Basques. In southern and eastern England, nearer the Continent, the figure is about one third. The Anglo ¬ Saxons and the Celts were small immigrant groups. «Neither group had much more impact on the British Isles gene pool than the Vikings, the Normans or, indeed, immigrants of the past 50 years,» he writes.

«…So the question comes where Basques originated from? The Basques are unique ethnic group, that inhabit parts of northwestern Spain and southwestern France. There have been several hypothesis regarding origin of those people. But lets refer to the founders of Basque national historiography Esteban de Garibay, Andres de Posa and Baltasar de Echave. All of them considered Armenia as homeland of Basques. Esteban de Garibay thought that Iberia was populated by descendants of Tubal, Noah’s grandson, who went to Iberia thirty-five years after the Flood subsided. Garibay observed that Basque place-names bore a resemblance to those in Armenia (http://www.gipuzkoakultura.net/ediciones/versus/estevez-es.htm).

Baltasar de Echave writes: «the first settlers arrived to Iberia after the Universal deluge with the children of Noah from «ours loved mother country Armenia» (http://www.ingeba.euskalnet.net/lurralde/lurranet/lur22/ore22/22ore. htm).

Interestingly legendary ancestor of the Basques had a name Aitor, which in Armenian means Grandson of an Armenian. The Armenian origin of Basques was strongly supported by several prominent researchers, such as Gaspar Eskolano, Edward Spencer Johnson, Joseph Karst, Bernardo Estornes Lasa, Nikolay Marr.

In conclusion, there was a genetic study done in different regions of Armenia, that detected that the characteristic genetic code prevalent in Welsh, Basques and Irish, called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, is also present in Armenian population of Syunik and Karabakh. These are two Armenian provinces predominantly isolated in the mountains, which precluded genetic admixture with neighboring ethnic groups and nations».

Armenian Astrophysicist

Benjamin (Benik) Jegischewitsch Markarjan was born November 29, 1913, in Shahumyan, Armenia and died September 25, 1985. He was an Armenian astrophysicist and had the Markarian’s Chain (of galaxies) named after him after discovering that this string of galaxies moves with a common motion, in the mid 1970s. He is also the namesake of a catalog of compact, optically bright galaxies (including both starbursts and AGN) known as Markarian galaxies.

The Markarian galaxies are a class of galaxies that have nuclei with excessive amounts of ultraviolet emissions compared with other galaxies.Benjamin Markarian drew attention to these types of galaxies starting in 1963. The nuclei of the galaxies had a blue colour that in a star would be classed from A to F. This blue core did not match the rest of the galaxy. The spectrum in detail tends to show a continuum that Markarian concluded was produced non-thermally. Most of these have emission lines and are interesting because of their energetic activity.

Markarian’s Chain is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. It is called a chain because, when viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line. Member galaxies include M84 (NGC 4374), M86 (NGC 4406), NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458,NGC 4438 and NGC 4435. It’s located at RA 12h 27m and Dec +13° 10′. At least seven galaxies in the chain appear to move coherently, although others appear to be superposed by chance.

Don Lavoie Graduate Student Essay Competition‏

The Society for the Development of Austrian Economics is pleased to 
announce that submissions for the 2012 Don Lavoie Memorial Graduate 
Student Essay Competition are now being accepted. Submissions will be 
accepted from advanced PhD students in economics or other relevant 
disciplines anywhere in the world.

The competition is limited to thesis chapters and/or other research that 
is geared toward publication in the professional journals; submissions 
should adhere to appropriate standards of academic writing and should be 
on a topic relevant to Austrian economics. There is no word limit; and, 
students submitting papers to this competition will retain all 
publication rights to their work; however, winners are encouraged to 
submit their papers to The Review of Austrian Economics for possible 
publication.

Three prizes are given, each worth $1000, to be used to pay expenses to 
attend the Southern Economic Association meetings this November 16-18, 
2012 in New Orleans, LA, where the winners will present their work on a 
special panel scheduled for 8:00am, Friday, November 16. Prize awards 
are contingent on attending the SEA meetings and the SDAE’s annual 
business meeting and awards banquet on Saturday evening, November 17.

The prize committee consists of:

• Peter Boettke, Committee Chair, George Mason University

• Emily Chamlee-Wright, Washington College

• Steven Horwitz, St. Lawrence University

• David Prychitko, Northern Michigan University

• Virgil Storr, Mercatus Center at George Mason University

Deadline for submissions is October 15, 2012. Decisions will be made on 
or around October 20.

Please include a copy of your CV with your submission. All questions and 
submissions should be sent electronically to Eric Celler at 
ericceller@gmail.com.

source: ARMACAD